- Research article
- Open Access
Diversifying selection and color-biased dispersal in the asp viper
© Dubey et al.; licensee BioMed Central. 2015
- Received: 10 December 2014
- Accepted: 29 April 2015
- Published: 31 May 2015
The presence of intraspecific color polymorphism can have multiple impacts on the ecology of a species; as a consequence, particular color morphs may be strongly selected for in a given habitat type. For example, the asp viper (Vipera aspis) shows a high level of color polymorphism. A blotched morph (cryptic) is common throughout its range (central and western Europe), while a melanistic morph is frequently found in montane populations, presumably for thermoregulatory reasons. Besides, rare atypical uniformly colored individuals are known here and there. Nevertheless, we found in a restricted treeless area of the French Alps, a population containing a high proportion (>50%) of such specimens.
The aim of the study is to bring insight into the presence and function of this color morph by (i) studying the genetic structure of these populations using nine microsatellite markers, and testing for (ii) a potential local diversifying selection and (iii) differences in dispersal capacity between blotched and non-blotched vipers.
Our genetic analyses support the occurrence of local diversifying selection for the non-blotched phenotype. In addition, we found significant color-biased dispersal, blotched individuals dispersing more than atypical individuals.
We hypothesize that, in this population, the non-blotched phenotype possess an advantage over the typical one, a phenomenon possibly due to a better background matching ability in a more open habitat. In addition, color-biased dispersal might be partly associated with the observed local diversifying selection, as it can affect the genetic structure of populations, and hence the distribution of color morphs.
- Diversifying selection
- Asp viper
Color polymorphism is strongly correlated with the distribution of a species, its ecological niche width, as well as its genetic diversity. Indeed, color polymorphic species exhibit larger distributions, can use wider niches, and are genetically more diverse than monomorphic species [1-5]. In addition, polymorphic species seems to be more resilient to environmental modifications, an advantage which could have a non-negligible effect on their long-term survival (e.g. ). Such correlations may explain the numerous implications of coloration in processes of prey-predator interactions (e.g. aposematism or camouflage), thermoregulation, and behavior (e.g. [6-10]).
Particular coloration can confer advantages in specific conditions. For example, the occurrence of melanistic morphs in ectothermic vertebrates such as reptiles, has been documented in a large number of species, obviously for thermoregulatory reasons (e.g. [11-14]). In cold conditions, melanistic reptiles are able to increase their temperature faster than non-melanistic individuals of the same species, thus providing multiple advantages in terms of reproductive output, growth rate, survival or length of the activity period [10,15-18]. However, such benefits could be counterbalanced by a reduced level of crypsis or a lack of aposematic signaling. Therefore, melanistic individuals might experience a higher predation rate (e.g. [10,11,19]), possibly leading to increased stress and decreased foraging efficiency, which in turn could negatively impact their body condition (e.g. [10,20,21]). In addition, it may also indirectly affect the dispersal capacity of this morph, as non-cryptic dispersing individuals are more likely to be predated and never reach new habitats, leading to a color-biased dispersal. Few cases are known in which dispersal behaviors are color-specific, independently of the survival rate of dispersing individuals. For example, recent field studies focusing on the barn owl (Tyto alba) have shown that darker individuals disperse farther than paler individuals [22,23]. Similarly, Saino et al.,  found that barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) darker males were more likely to disperse. Such color-biased dispersals might deeply affect the population genetic structure of a species and its capacity to colonize new habitats, and might be partly associated to local diversifying selection.
For these reasons, particular color morphs may be under strong selection in a given habitat type. In order to test such a selection, an effective method is to compare color variation with the genetic differentiation (estimated using neutral genetic markers) of different populations to contrast the degree of adaptive variation and the degree of differentiation due to potential genetic drift [25-27]. The genetic divergence of neutral loci can serve as null-hypothesis to test against the adaptive divergence as an alternative [28,29].
Mean F is , expected and observed heterozygosities (H E and H 0 ) , and number of alleles per locus
Number of analysed individuals, proportion of non-blotched individuals (%), mean F is , expected and observed heterozygosity (H E and H o ) , mean F st , and allele richness (AR) within populations and overall
Gene flow & population structure
F st (in bold: significant values; lower triangular matrix) and geographical distance (km) between pairs of populations (upper triangular matrix)
The BayesAss analysis suggested that recent exchange of migrants occurred between some populations, with a maximum value of m = 0.20 (std: 0.03) from population 1 into 4. In addition, the evaluation of gene flow revealed that it was asymmetrical between most populations (i.e. when standard deviations of gene flow between two populations did not overlap; see Additional file 1).
Color and sex-biased dispersal analyses
P st vs F st
The mean P st values for the color trait were 0.17 when estimated with FSTAT, or 0.099, 0.17, and 0.28 when estimated with various level of potential heritability, i.e. 1, 0.5, and 0.1 respectively. All P st values were higher than the empirical 95th percentile of the pairwise FST distribution (this study: 0.086) and hence were considered as extreme, meaning that the coloration differentiations between populations might evolve by selection and not by neutral processes. The Wilcoxon signed rank tests revealed that there are significant difference between PST calculated with FSTAT (S = -437.5; P < 0.001), and with heritabilities of 0.5 (S = -438; P = 0.002) and 0.1 (S = -484; P < 0.001), but not when the heritability was set at 1 (S = -197; P = 0.18).
Our genetic analyses revealed a local diversifying selection and a color-biased dispersal (blotched individuals disperse more than non-blotched individuals). The combination of these results has several implications.
It is not known if non-blotched individuals are more frequently attacked by their predators (mainly raptors) than blotched individuals, in contrast to melanistic individuals [19,30], but the results of the present study attest the occurrence of selection for the uniformly colored phenotype, which is common only in the centre of the studied area (considering the other populations of the Mont Blanc massif). Thus, we hypothesize that this phenotype has a local cryptic function and is consequently better adapted to its habitat, which is less wooded, respectively more open than surrounding areas and characterized by light-colored stones. Indeed, several birds of prey occur in our study area, such as the short-toed snake eagle (Circaetus gallicus), which is a specific snake predator and can have a strong impact on viper populations .
An alternative scenario explaining the observed results would be selection against the non-blotched phenotype outside the core region and no selection within it. The results obtained in this study are also in agreement with this hypothesis. Indeed, the mAIcs of blotched individuals were lower than those of non-blotched individuals, meaning than these latter may be poor dispersers, or that non-blotched dispersers may be unable to survive out of their restricted geographical range. Based on our investigation, it is currently impossible to untangle these two hypotheses. However, mark-recapture and telemetry studies should provide helpful information concerning potential differences in the dispersal capacities of the different color morphs. Moreover, studying the predation rate of color polymorphic decoys could highlight differences in detectability between color morphs.
Furthermore, we cannot exclude that the observed pattern might be due to a recent range expansion (coupled with founder effects) of asp vipers in the study area. Such event could result in a low genetic structure and in a non-random distribution of the different color morphs, as observed in this study. Nevertheless, given (i) the lack of differences in the genetic diversity (both for AR and HO) between monomorphic and polymorphic populations, (ii) the particularity of the habitat where non-blotched snakes are found and (iii) the observed differences in dispersal capacity between blotched and non-blotched individuals (which might be linked to behavioral differences or to different survival rates of dispersers), a scenario involving a diversifying selection is more likely.
In a more general context, this atypical coloration, showing a lack of blotched or zigzag patterns on the dorsum of individuals, has been described in other viperids such as the Seoane’s viper (Vipera seoanei), meadow viper (Vipera ursinii, S. Ursenbacher & J.-P. Baron, pers. comm.) or Latifi’s viper (Montivipera latifii, ), but its impact on individuals is still unknown. However, several studies focusing on colubrid snakes and a species of salamander highlighted behavioral differences between color morphs in term of aggressiveness and predator avoidance strategies (Thamnophis ordinoides: [38,39]; Coluber constrictor: ; Plethodon cinereus: ).
The few studies focusing on color variation and the genetic structure of populations all showed that diversifying selection occurred. For example, Manier et al.  detected diversifying selection of different ecotypes of garter snake Thamnophis elegans (in terms of coloration and scalation). Cox & Rabosky  found that strong selection promotes color polymorphism across spatial and temporal scales in the highly polymorphic ground snake (Sonora semiannulata). In birds, Antoniazza et al.  found that local adaptation maintains clinal variation in melanin-based coloration of European barn owls (Tyto alba). In addition, the analyses of contact zones between closely related gull species (genus Larus) showed that interspecific divergence in plumage melanism and orbital ring color, clearly exceeded neutral genetic differentiation . Interestingly, Abbott et al.  showed that diversifying selection occurred in color-polymorphic damselfly (Ischnura elegans) populations in a given year, while two generations later (two years) population differentiation in morph frequencies fell behind neutral genetic differentiation. Consequently, it is consistent with a temporal heterogeneity in selection in these populations, meaning that selection might vary over time, where both spatial and temporal heterogeneities likely play an important role in promoting and maintaining polymorphism. In addition, in the Californian spider, Theridion californicum, characterized by at least eleven color morphs, genetic analyses of several populations revealed that such polymorphism is maintained through balancing selection, i.e. acting to maintain polymorphism across populations .
Overall, these studies suggested that observed intraspecific color variations in both vertebrates and invertebrates are often the result of a local adaptation and are not due to a random genetic drift. Therefore, observed color polymorphism in these studies is not neutral from an evolutionary point of view. In this respect, recent studies highlighted that the presence of intraspecific color polymorphism might increase the adaptive potential of a species hence its long-term survival and capacity to deal with environmental variations (e.g. ). As a consequence, the important color polymorphism found in the asp viper might be accountable for its unique capacity among reptiles to deal with a large number of habitat types, ranging from Mediterranean coastal areas to alpine regions (up to 2500m above sea level; ). Indeed, color morphs and their intrapopulational frequencies are tightly linked to geographical regions and habitat types (e.g. [10,33]). A recent field study highlighted intrapopulational sex-specific differences in body condition between melanistic and blotched V. aspis , melanistic females exhibiting higher body condition than blotched ones. These results were attributed to the importance of an efficient thermoregulation for females during gestation, and to higher rate of predation in melanistic males compared to blotched ones. Since males are actively searching for females during the breeding season, and are forced to move away from their shelter, their chance of being predated is greater than for females . These results illustrated the complex role that coloration plays in ectothermic vertebrates, and how it can be involved in the evolution of such organisms.
The presence of important color polymorphism within a species may provide more opportunities to adapt and cope with different environmental pressures , leading in turn to a potentially larger distribution area and a higher resilience. Even though the studied area presents a unique case in the asp viper, investigating the different environmental characteristics (biotic and abiotic) leading to the local selection of this particular pattern can be of major interest to understand i) the selection pressure on the dorsal coloration in ectothermic vertebrates ii) the speed of the morphological adaptation and iii) the importance of such phenotypic diversity within species.
Study site and tissue sampling
For each captured individual, we collected the coordinates either with a GPS or with the help of Google Earth v5.0 (Google, Mountain View, US), both methods allowing an accuracy of about 10 m. We collected DNA samples for the genetic analyses from blood, ventral scales, tip of the tail (stored in 90% ethanol prior to DNA extraction), and/or buccal swab. In order to avoid duplicate samplings, we took dorsal and head pattern pictures (dorsal and lateral view) for each specimen. Color morphs of individuals were determined in the field. Several persons scored the phenotype of snakes simultaneously and none of the 170 individuals used in the present study had an ambiguous phenotype. Indeed, blotched (characterized by a zigzag-like pattern) and atypical non-blotched individuals (light-colored individuals with an absence of zigzag-like pattern) were sufficiently different to avoid misclassifications (Figure 1).
We extracted DNA using the QIAGEN DNeasy® kit (QIAGEN, Hombrechtikon, Switzerland) according to the DNeasy® Blood & Tissue Handbook. In order to improve the quality of extractions, we modified a few steps: (i) overnight lysis was conducted for most samples, (ii) elution was performed twice using 100 μl of Buffer AE and finally (iii) incubation time was extended to 5 min so that a higher concentration of DNA was obtained. For buccal DNA sampling, the DNA extraction was also following the same protocol, except that swabs were placed into the DNeasy Mini spin column and centrifuged to remove the remaining liquid from them between steps 4 and 5 of the protocol provided by the manufacturer.
Seven loci from V. aspis (Va-P70, 91, 69, 35, 81, 25, 20; ) and two loci from V. berus (Vb-A8 and Vb-D17; ) were amplified and scored. We performed PCR in an Eppendorf Mastercycler Gradient (Vaudaux-Eppendorf AG, Basel, Switzerland), with a final volume of 12 μl per reaction, using 2-4 μl of DNA extraction 1x PCR buffer, 2 mg/ml of Q solution, 0.2 mM dNTPs, 0.5 units of Taq Polymerase, and, depending on the amplified locus, 1.5 - 3.5 mM of MgCl2 (all reagents from QIAGEN) and 0.25 – 0.5 mM of each primer (see Additional file 1 for more details). Cycling conditions included 37 to 40 cycles of 95°C for 30 sec, 50 to 57°C (depending on the microsatellite locus) annealing temperature during 30 sec, 72°C for 45 sec, and a final extension of 72°C for 7 min (see  for more details). Then, we genotyped amplified products with an ABI3130xl genetic analyzer (Applied Biosystems) and visualized with PEAK SCANNER™ Software v1.0 (Applied Biosystems).
F-statistics and genetic diversity parameters
First, we tested for the presence of null-alleles, scoring error due to stuttering and large allele dropout with MICRO-CHECKER v 2.2.3 . We calculated the genotypic disequilibrium between loci in each sample based on 10,000 randomizations to check for linked loci. We tested deviations from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) within samples based on 10,000 randomizations. We estimated the Wright’s fixation indices for within-population deviation from random mating (FIS), as well as pairwise subpopulation differentiation (FST), following Weir & Cockerham . We computed deviations from random mating within populations (FIS) per locus and sample with a bootstrap procedure including 10,000 randomizations. We estimated expected (HE) and observed (HO) heterozygosities following the methods of Nei & Chesser  and allelic richness (AR) with FSTAT. In addition, we performed a Mantel test  with genetic distance (pairwise FST) as the dependent variable and the distance between sites as explanatory variable. We carried out permutation tests in order to detect significant differences in allelic richness, expected (HE) and observed (HO) heterozygosities and FST indices among the populations with a high versus a low amount of non-blotched individuals (populations 1-4 and 5-12, respectively). We performed all summary statistics and tests using the software FSTAT Version 22.214.171.124 . The critical p-value of 0.05 was adjusted using the Bonferroni correction  due to multiple comparisons.
Structure of populations
We used the software Structure version 2.3.4 , a Bayesian model-based clustering method , to infer population structure and to assign individuals to populations. Based on allele frequencies, we used this MCMC simulation to assign a membership coefficient for each individual to each K populations. Ten runs of 600,000 iterations (the first 200,000 considered as burn-in) for K = 1–12 were performed including all individuals. Then, we defined the number of clusters that best fits our data set as described in Evanno et al. . This approach compares the rate of change in the log probability of data between successive K and the corresponding variance of log probabilities.
Unidirectional gene flow among populations
In order to quantify unidirectional migration rates (m) between populations, we used the software BayesAss 3.0.3 . This Bayesian method relies on the tendency for immigrants to show temporary disequilibrium in their genotypes relative to the focal population, which allows their identification as immigrants or offspring of immigrants. After initial runs were conducted with variable values of deltaA, deltaM and deltaF in order to improve the acceptance levels, the best values were set to deltaA = 1, deltaM = 0.2 and deltaF = 1. For the final analysis, we used 3 x 106 MCMC iterations, including a burn-in length of 3 x 105 iterations.
Sex and color-biased dispersal
We tested for sex- and color-biased dispersal in our populations, using GenAlEx 6.5 . Then, we compared the mean of the corrected assignment index (mAIc; ) between sexes (males vs. females), as well as between colors (blotched vs. non-blotched individuals). With this statistical approach, residents tend to have higher mAIc values than immigrants.
Comparison between genetic and morphological variation
To test whether the coloration differentiations between populations evolved by neutral processes or selection, we compared PST values obtained for individual traits and with the two different methods with the distribution of pairwise FST values. As in Slavov et al. , we considered PST values as extreme when exceeding the empirical 95th percentile of the FST distribution (in this study: 0.086). In addition, to check for significant difference between PST - and FST-values, we performed a Wilcoxon signed rank test .
Availability of supporting data
Microsatellite genotypes and phenotypes: Dryad doi: 0.5061/dryad.87478.
The samples have been taken with the authorizations of the local authorities (Autorisation préfectorale No. 2009-14; Direction de l’Administration Territoriale et de l’Environnement, Bureau de l’Environnement et du Développement Durable, Préfecture de la Savoie, 73018 Chambéry, France).
The project was conducted with the financial supports of the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF n° PZ00P3_136649) and the Hans-Schiemenz-Fonds 2010 administered by the DGHT. We thank Lena Kigouk for the English of the manuscript.
- Forsman A, Ǻberg V. Associations of variable coloration with nich breadth and conservation status among Australian reptiles. Ecology. 2008;89:1201–7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Forsman A. Rethinking the thermal melanism hypothesis: rearing temperature and coloration in pygmy grasshoppers. Evol Ecol. 2011;25:1247–57.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Farallo VR, Forstner MRJ. Predation and the maintenance of color polymorphism in a habitat specialist squamate. PLoS One. 2012;7:e30316.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Roulin A, Burri R, Antoniazza S. Owl melanin-based plumage redness is more frequent near than away from the equator: implications on the effect of climate change on biodiversity. Biol J Linn Soc. 2011;102:573–82.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pizzatto L, Dubey S. Colour-polymorphic snake species are older. Biol J Linn Soc. 2012;107:207–18.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Roulin A. The evolution, maintenance and adaptive function of genetic colour polymorphism in birds. Biological Rev. 2004;79:815–48.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Protas ME, Patel NH. Evolution of coloration patterns. Ann Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2008;24:425–46.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- McKinnon JS, Pierotti MER. Colour polymorphism and correlated characters: genetic mechanisms and evolution. Mol Ecol. 2010;19:5101–25.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rosenblum EB, Rompler H, Schoneberg T, Hoekstra HE. Molecular and functional basis of phenotypic convergence in white lizards at White Sands. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:2113–7.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Castella B, Golay J, Monney JC, Golay P, Mebert K, Dubey S. Melanism, body condition and elevational distribution in the asp viper. J Zool. 2013;290:273–80.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gibson AR, Falls B. Thermal biology of the common garter snake Thamnophis sirtalis L. II. The effects of melanism. Oecologia. 1979;43:99–109.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tucker JK, Maher J, Theiling CH. Melanism in the Red-Eared Slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). J Herpetol. 1995;29:291–6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tanaka K. Some like it cool? Intermorph comparison of preferred body temperature in a colour-dimorphic snake. Anim Biol. 2009;59:31–9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jambrich A, Jandzik D. Melanism in the topotypic population of the Pannonian subspecies of the common lizard, Zootoca vivipara pannonica (Reptilia: Lacertidae). Herpetological Notes. 2012;5:219–21.Google Scholar
- Huey RB, Kingsolver JG. Evolution of thermal sensitivity of ectotherm performance. Trends Ecol Evol. 1989;4:131–5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Luiselli L. Reproductive success in melanistic adders: a new hypothesis and some considerations on Andrén and Nilson's (1981) suggestions. Oikos. 1992;64:601–4.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Capulla M, Luiselli L. Reproductive strategies in alpine adders, Vipera berus – the black females bear more often. Acta-oecologia-Int J Ecol. 1994;15:207–14.Google Scholar
- Clusella-Trullas S, van Wyk JH, Spotila JR. Thermal melanism in ectotherms. J Therm Biol. 2007;32:235–45.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Andrén C, Nilson G. Reproductive success and risk of predation in normal and melanistic colour morphs of the adder, Vipera berus. Biol J Linn Soc. 1981;15:235–46.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Perez-Tris J, Diaz JA, Telleria JL. Loss of body mass under predation risk: cost of antipredatory behaviour or adaptive fit-for-escape? Anim Behav. 2004;67:511–21.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- San-José LM, Gonzales-Jimena V, Fitze P. Frequency and phenotypic differences of melanistic and normally colored common lizards, Lacerta (Zootoca) vivipara of the Southern Pyrenees (Spain). Herpetol Rev. 2008;39:422–5.Google Scholar
- Van den Brink V, Dreiss AN, Roulin A. Melanin-based coloration predicts natal dispersal in the barn owl, Tyto alba. Anim Behav. 2012;84:805–12.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Roulin A. Ring recoveries of dead birds confirm that darker pheomelanic Barn Owls disperse longer distances. J Ornithol. 2013;154:871–4.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Saino N, Romano M, Scandolara C, Rubolini D, Ambrosini R, Caprioli M, et al. Brownish, small and lousy barn swallows have greater natal dispersal propensity. Anim Behav. 2014;87:137–46.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lande R. Neutral theory of quantitative genetic variance in an island model with local extinction and colonization. Evolution. 1992;46:381–9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Merilä J, Crnokrak P. Comparison of genetic differentiation at marker loci and quantitative traits. J Evol Biol. 2001;14:892–903.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- McKay JK, Latta RG. Adaptive population divergence: markers, QTL and traits. Trends Ecol Evol. 2002;17:285–91.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lynch M. The rate of morphological evolution in mammals from the standpoint of the neutral expectation. Am Nat. 1990;136:728–41.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Spitze K. Population-structure in Daphnia obtusa - Quantitative genetic and allozymic variation. Genetics. 1993;135:367–74.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wüster W, Allum CS, Bjargardóttir IB, Bailey KL, Dawson KJ, Guenioui J, et al. Do aposematism and Batesian mimicry require bright colours? A test, using European viper markings. Proc R Soc B. 2004;271:2495–9.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Valkonen JK, Niskanen M, Björklund M, Mappes J. Disruption or aposematism? Significance of dorsal zigzag pattern of European vipers. Evol Ecol. 2011;25:1047–63.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Brönnimann O, Ursenbacher S, Meyer A, Golay P, Monney J-C, Schmocker H, et al. Role of climate on the presence of colour polymorphism in two montane reptile species. Biol Lett. 2014;10:20140638.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mebert K, Zwahlen V, Golay P, Durand T, Ursenbacher S. Ungewöhnlich hoher Farb-Polymorphismus in alpinen Aspisvipern in Frankreich. Elaphe. 2011;1–2011:13–9.Google Scholar
- Ducrest AL, Ursenbacher S, Golay P, Monney JC, Mebert K, Roulin A, et al. Pro-opiomelanocortin gene and melanin-based colour polymorphism in a reptile. Biol J Linn Soc. 2014;111:160–8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Evanno G, Regnaut S, Goudet J. Detecting the number of clusters of individuals using the software STRUCTURE: a simulation study. Mol Ecol. 2005;14:2611–20.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Maumary L, Duperrex H, Cloutier J, Vallotton A. Première nidification du Circaète Jean-le-Blanc (Circaetus gallicus) en Suisse - Observations sur la biologie de reproduction, en particulier le régime alimentaire. Nos Oiseaux. 2013;60:3–24.Google Scholar
- Rajabizadeh M, Yazdanpanah A, Ursenbacher S. Preliminary analysis of dorsal pattern variation and sexual dimorphism in Montivipera latifii (Mertens, Darevsky and Klemmer, 1967) (Ophidia: Viperidae). Acta Herpetologica. 2012;7:13–21.Google Scholar
- Brodie ED. Genetic correlations between morphology and antipredator behavior in natural populations of the garter snake Thamnophis ordinoides. Nature. 1989;342:542–3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brodie ED. Correlational selection for color pattern and antipredator behavior in the garter snake Thamnophis ordinoides. Evolution. 1992;46:1284–98.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Creer DA. Correlations between ontogenetic change in color pattern and antipredator behavior in the racer, Coluber constrictor. Ethology. 2005;111:287–300.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Venesky MD, Anthony CD. Antipredator adaptations and predator avoidance by two color morphs of the eastern red-backed salamander, Plethodon cinereus. Herpetologica. 2007;63:450–8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Manier MK, Seyler CM, Arnold SJ. Adaptive divergence within and between ecotypes of the terrestrial garter snake, Thamnophis elegans, assessed with FST-QST comparisons. J Evol Biol. 2007;20:1705–19.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cox CL, Rabosky ARD. Spatial and temporal drivers of phenotypic diversity in polymorphic snakes. Am Nat. 2013;182:E40–57.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Antoniazza S, Burri R, Fumagalli L, Goudet J, Roulin A. Local adaptation maintains clinal variation in melanin-based coloration of European barn owls (Tyto alba). Evolution. 2010;64:1944–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gay L, Neubauer G, Zagalska-Neubauer M, Pons JM, Bell DA, Crochet PA. Speciation with gene flow in the large white-headed gulls: does selection counterbalance introgression? Heredity. 2009;102:133–46.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Abbott JK, Bensch S, Gosden TP, Svensson EI. Patterns of differentiation in a colour polymorphism and in neutral markers reveal rapid genetic changes in natural damselfly populations. Mol Ecol. 2008;17:1597–604.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Croucher PJP, Oxford GS, Lam A, Gillspie RG. Stabilizing selection maintains exuberant colour polymorphism in the spider Theridion californicum (Araneae, Theridiidae). Mol Ecol. 2011;20:206–18.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Meyer A, Zumbach S, Schmidt B. Les amphibiens et les reptiles de Suisse. Bern: Haupt Verlag; 2009.Google Scholar
- Geser S, Kaiser L, Zwahlen V, Ursenbacher S. Development of polymorphic microsatellite markers for the asp viper (Vipera aspis) using high-throughput sequencing and their use for other European vipers. Amphibia-Reptilia. 2013;34:109–13.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ursenbacher S, Monney J-C, Fumagalli L. Limited genetic diversity and high differentiation among the remnant adder (Vipera berus) populations in the Swiss and French Jura Mountains. Conserv Genet. 2009;2:303–15.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Van Oosterhout C, Hutchinson WF, Wills DPM, Shipley P. Micro-Checker: software for identifying and correcting genotyping errors in microsatellite data. Mol Ecol Notes. 2004;4:535–8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Weir B, Cockerham C. Estimating F-Statistics for the analysis of population structure. Evolution. 1984;38:1358–70.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nei M, Chesser RK. Estimation of fixation indices and gene diversities. Ann Hum Genet. 1983;47:253–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mantel N. The detection of disease clustering and a generalized regression approach. Cancer Res. 1967;27:209–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Goudet J. FSTAT (Version 1.2): A computer program to calculate F-statistics. J. Heredity. 1995;86:485–6.Google Scholar
- Bonferroni CE. Il calcolo delle assicurazioni su gruppi di teste. Rome, Italy: Studi in Onore del Professore Salvatore Ortu Carboni; 1935. p. 13–60.Google Scholar
- Hubisz MJ, Falush D, Stephens M, Pritchard JK. Inferring weak population structure with the assistance of sample group information. Mol Ecol Res. 2009;9:1322–32.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pritchard JK, Stephens M, Donnelly P. Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data. Genetics. 2000;155:945–59.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wilson GA, Rannala B. Bayesian inference of recent migration rates using multilocus genotypes. Genetics. 2003;163:1177–91.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Peakall R, Smouse PE. GenAlEx 6.5: genetic analysis in Excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research-an update. Bioinformatics. 2012;28:2537–9.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Favre L, Balloux F, Goudet J, Perrin N. Female-biased dispersal in the monogamous mammal Crocidura russula: evidence from field data and microsatellite patterns. Proc R Soc B. 1997;264:127–32.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Saether SA, Fiske P, Kålås JA, Kuresoo A, Luigujõe L, Piertney SB, et al. Inferring local adaptation from QST–FST comparisons: neutral genetic and quantitative trait variation in European populations of great snipe. J Evol Biol. 2007;20:1563–76.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wright S. The genetical structure of populations. Ann Eugenics. 1951;15:323–54.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sokal R, Rohlf F. Biometry. New York: Freeman; 1995.Google Scholar
- Slavov G, Robson P, Jensen E, Hodgson E, Farrar K, Allison G, et al. Contrasting geographic patterns of genetic variation for molecular markers vs. phenotypic traits in the energy grass Miscanthus sinensis. GCB Bioenergy. 2013;5:562–71.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wilcoxon F. Individual comparisons by ranking methods. Biom Bull. 1945;1:80–3.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.