South Arvensis
 
2
x
 
widespread

leaves mostly divided

K. ambigua

K. arvensis

2x

grasslands and ruderal places

SE Balkan Peninsula
 
K. arvensis

K. arvensis

2x [4x]

grasslands and ruderal places

most of Europe except for the extreme south
 
K. lucana

K. arvensis

2x

forests

S Italy
 
K. macedonica

K. arvensis

2x

grasslands and ruderal places

Central Balkan Peninsula
 
K. visianii

K. arvensis

2x

grasslands and ruderal places

Central and W Balkan Peninsula
 
Carinthiaca & North Arvensis
 
2
x
, 4
x
 
widespread

morphologically heterogeneous with mostly divided leaves

K. arvensis

K. arvensis

[2x] 4x

grasslands and ruderal places

most of Europe except for the extreme south
 
K. carinthiaca

K. velutina

2x

natural grasslands and rock cervices, limestone

Austria (E Central Alps)
 
K. dipsacifolia p.p.

K. silvatica

4x [6x]

forest margins, tall herb communities, meadows

Central Europe [Alps, Central Balkan Peninsula]
 
K. kitaibelii
 
4x

meadows, wood margins

Central Europe
 
K. norica

K. subcanescens/persicina

4x

grassy forest understory, rocks

Austria (E Alps)
 
K. pseudolongifolia
 
2x

alpine rock pastures

W Krkonoše (Czech Republic)
 
K. serpentinicola
 
2x

serpentine forest clearings and edges

NW Czech Republic
 
K. slovaca
 
2x

natural grasslands on limestone

central E Slovakia
 
Drymeia & Dinarica
 
2
x
, 4
x
 
widespread

mostly undivided leaves; soft indumentum with additional, mostly yellowish setae on basal parts, partly monopodial rhizomes

K. csikii

K. dinarica

2x

(sub) alpine meadows, tall herb communities

Central and W Balkan Peninsula
 
K. dinarica

K. dinarica

2x, 4x

(sub) alpine meadows, tall herb communities

Central and W Balkan Peninsula; S Italy
 
K. dipsacifolia p.p.

K. silvatica

4x [6x]

rocky forest clearings

Central Balkan Peninsula [Alps, Central Europe]
 
K. drymeia

K. drymeia

2x, 4x

forest and forest margins

Central and SE Europe, N Italy
 
K. sarajevensis

K. sarajevensis

4x

forest margins

Central Balkan Peninsula
 
K. sp. 2
 
4x

serpentine clearings

Central Balkan Peninsula
 
Alpine Dipsacifolia
 
6
x
 
regional

Undivided, dentate leaves

K. dipsacifolia p.p.

K. silvatica

[4x] 6x

forests, forest margins, tall herb communities

Alps [Central Europe, Central Balkan Peninsula]
 
Longifolia
 
2
x
, 4
x
, 6
x
 
regional, disjunct

often undivided leaves, lanceolate, with entire margins, divided leaves with long terminal segment

K. baldensis

K. subcanescens/persicina

4x

subalpine meadows

N Italy
 
K. fleischmannii

K. fleischmannii

4x

thermophilous shrubland

Slovenia
 
K. illyrica p.p.

K. arvensis

2x, 4x [6x]

meadows, pastures, open forests

SE Alps to NW Balkan Peninsula
 
K. longifolia

K. longifolia

2x

upper montane to alpine meadows and tall herb communities

S and E Alps, S and E Carpathians
 
K. pancicii

K. longifolia

2x

damp mountain meadows

Zlatibor planina (Serbia)
 
K. persicina

K. subcanescens/persicina

4x

stabilised limestone screes

N Italy
 
K. purpurea p.p.

K. arvensis

2x, 4x

meadows

SW and S Europe
 
K. ressmannii

K. silvatica

6x

forest margins

N Italy
 
K. velutina

K. velutina

2x

screes, pastures, forest edges

S Alps
 
Midzorensis
 
2
x
, 4
x
 
regional, continuous

undivided lanceolate leaves with entire margins; peduncles glandular or eglandular

K. magnifica
 
4x

subalpine grasslands, pastures

E central Balkan Peninsula
 
K. midzorensis

K. longifolia

2x, 4x

tall herb communities, rocky pastures

E central Balkan Peninsula
 
Montana
 
2
x
 
widespread

yellowflowering; often tall herbs with ovate, undivided to lyrate leaves

K. involucrata

K. montana

2x

subalpine meadows

Anatolia to Caucasus
 
K. montana

K. montana

2x

tall herb communities

Caucasus to Urals
 
SW European
 
2
x
, 4
x
, 6
x
 
widespread, but disjunct

heterogeneous; often undivided leaves, sometimes deeply divided; leaves glabrous to densely hairy

K. arvernensis

K. silvatica

4x

forest margins, wet meadows

Massif Central (France)
 
K. basaltica

K. longifolia

2x

(sub) alpine grasslands on volcanic bedrock

Massif Central (France)
 
K. foreziensis
 
4x

dwarf shrubcommunities
  
K. godetii

K. longifolia

2x

wet meadows, fens

Massif Central (France) to Jura Mountains (Switzerland)
 
K. lebrunii

K. longifolia

2x

tall herb communities, open forests

Eastern Pyrenees
 
K. legionensis
 
4x

meadows

N Iberian Peninsula
 
K. nevadensis

K. silvatica

4x

tall herb communities, road margins, silicate

Iberian Peninsula
 
K. rupicola
 
4x, 6x

montane meadows, limestone screes

E Iberian Peninsula
 
K. subcanescens

K. subcanescens/persicina

2x, 4x

tall herb communities, (sub) alpine meadows

Western Alps
 
K. subscaposa
 
2x

grassy and rocky slopes

Iberian Peninsula
 
Xerophytic
 
2
x
, 4
x
, 6
x
 
widespread

usually strongly divided leaves with one to three pairs of lobes, often densely lanuginose to tomentose

K. adriatica
 
4x

rocky limestone slopes, calcareous hillsides, scrub margins

Dalmatia (Croatia)
 
K. albanica

K. velutina

2x

dry grasslands

Central W Balkan Peninsula
 
K. arvensis

K. arvensis

2x, 4x

grasslands and ruderal places

most of Europe except for the extreme south
 
K. calycina

K. velutina

2x

mountain grasslands

Central and S Italy, Sicily
 
K. clementii

K. dalmatica

4x, 6x

dry grasslands

Dalmatia (Croatia)
 
K. collina

K. arvensis

2x

dry grasslands and subruderal places

S France and NW Italy?
 
K. dalmatica

K. dalmatica

4x

rocky limestone slopes, calcareous hillsides, scrub margines

Dalmatia (Croatia)
 
K. illyrica p.p.

K. arvensis

2x, 4x, 6x

dry grasslands

SE Alps to NW Balkan Peninsula
 
K. mollis

K. velutina

2x

mountain grasslands

SW Alps
 
K. pectinata

K. dalmatica

2x, 4x

dry mountain grasslands

NW Balkan Peninsula (Velebit)
 
K. purpurea p.p.

K. arvensis

2x, 4x

dry grasslands and ruderal places

SW and S Europe
 
K. sp. 1
 
6x

upper montane meadows

NW Balkan Peninsula (S Velebit)
 
K. travnicensis

K. fleischmannii

2x, 4x, 6x

dry mountain grasslands

Central NW Balkan Peninsula
 
K. velebitica

K. velutina

2x

dry mountain grasslands

NW Balkan Peninsula (Velebit)
 