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Table 3 Comparison of the species groups within Knautia sect. Trichera proposed by us with those of Ehrendorfer [21, 30]. Information in squared brackets refers to accessions of the same species belonging to different AFLP groups. The addition “p.p.” after a species’ name indicates that the species is included in more than one AFLP groups. Distributions of individual species are characterised based on floras as well as on the author’s field observations

From: Patterns of rapid diversification in heteroploid Knautia sect. Trichera (Caprifoliaceae, Dipsacoideae), one of the most intricate taxa of the European flora

AFLP groups and constituent species Groups recognised by Ehrendorfer (1962a, 1981) Ploidy levels of AFLP groups and constituent species Habitat preference of individual species Distribution type of AFLP groups and distribution of individual species Morphological characteristics of AFLP groups
South Arvensis   2 x   widespread leaves mostly divided
K. ambigua K. arvensis 2x grasslands and ruderal places SE Balkan Peninsula  
K. arvensis K. arvensis 2x [4x] grasslands and ruderal places most of Europe except for the extreme south  
K. lucana K. arvensis 2x forests S Italy  
K. macedonica K. arvensis 2x grasslands and ruderal places Central Balkan Peninsula  
K. visianii K. arvensis 2x grasslands and ruderal places Central and W Balkan Peninsula  
Carinthiaca & North Arvensis   2 x , 4 x   widespread morphologically heterogeneous with mostly divided leaves
K. arvensis K. arvensis [2x] 4x grasslands and ruderal places most of Europe except for the extreme south  
K. carinthiaca K. velutina 2x natural grasslands and rock cervices, limestone Austria (E Central Alps)  
K. dipsacifolia p.p. K. silvatica 4x [6x] forest margins, tall herb communities, meadows Central Europe [Alps, Central Balkan Peninsula]  
K. kitaibelii   4x meadows, wood margins Central Europe  
K. norica K. subcanescens/persicina 4x grassy forest understory, rocks Austria (E Alps)  
K. pseudolongifolia   2x alpine rock pastures W Krkonoše (Czech Republic)  
K. serpentinicola   2x serpentine forest clearings and edges NW Czech Republic  
K. slovaca   2x natural grasslands on limestone central E Slovakia  
Drymeia & Dinarica   2 x , 4 x   widespread mostly undivided leaves; soft indumentum with additional, mostly yellowish setae on basal parts, partly monopodial rhizomes
K. csikii K. dinarica 2x (sub) alpine meadows, tall herb communities Central and W Balkan Peninsula  
K. dinarica K. dinarica 2x, 4x (sub) alpine meadows, tall herb communities Central and W Balkan Peninsula; S Italy  
K. dipsacifolia p.p. K. silvatica 4x [6x] rocky forest clearings Central Balkan Peninsula [Alps, Central Europe]  
K. drymeia K. drymeia 2x, 4x forest and forest margins Central and SE Europe, N Italy  
K. sarajevensis K. sarajevensis 4x forest margins Central Balkan Peninsula  
K. sp. 2   4x serpentine clearings Central Balkan Peninsula  
Alpine Dipsacifolia   6 x   regional Undivided, dentate leaves
K. dipsacifolia p.p. K. silvatica [4x] 6x forests, forest margins, tall herb communities Alps [Central Europe, Central Balkan Peninsula]  
Longifolia   2 x , 4 x , 6 x   regional, disjunct often undivided leaves, lanceolate, with entire margins, divided leaves with long terminal segment
K. baldensis K. subcanescens/persicina 4x subalpine meadows N Italy  
K. fleischmannii K. fleischmannii 4x thermophilous shrubland Slovenia  
K. illyrica p.p. K. arvensis 2x, 4x [6x] meadows, pastures, open forests SE Alps to NW Balkan Peninsula  
K. longifolia K. longifolia 2x upper montane to alpine meadows and tall herb communities S and E Alps, S and E Carpathians  
K. pancicii K. longifolia 2x damp mountain meadows Zlatibor planina (Serbia)  
K. persicina K. subcanescens/persicina 4x stabilised limestone screes N Italy  
K. purpurea p.p. K. arvensis 2x, 4x meadows SW and S Europe  
K. ressmannii K. silvatica 6x forest margins N Italy  
K. velutina K. velutina 2x screes, pastures, forest edges S Alps  
Midzorensis   2 x , 4 x   regional, continuous undivided lanceolate leaves with entire margins; peduncles glandular or eglandular
K. magnifica   4x subalpine grasslands, pastures E central Balkan Peninsula  
K. midzorensis K. longifolia 2x, 4x tall herb communities, rocky pastures E central Balkan Peninsula  
Montana   2 x   widespread yellow-flowering; often tall herbs with ovate, undivided to lyrate leaves
K. involucrata K. montana 2x subalpine meadows Anatolia to Caucasus  
K. montana K. montana 2x tall herb communities Caucasus to Urals  
SW European   2 x , 4 x , 6 x   widespread, but disjunct heterogeneous; often undivided leaves, sometimes deeply divided; leaves glabrous to densely hairy
K. arvernensis K. silvatica 4x forest margins, wet meadows Massif Central (France)  
K. basaltica K. longifolia 2x (sub) alpine grasslands on volcanic bedrock Massif Central (France)  
K. foreziensis   4x dwarf shrub-communities   
K. godetii K. longifolia 2x wet meadows, fens Massif Central (France) to Jura Mountains (Switzerland)  
K. lebrunii K. longifolia 2x tall herb communities, open forests Eastern Pyrenees  
K. legionensis   4x meadows N Iberian Peninsula  
K. nevadensis K. silvatica 4x tall herb communities, road margins, silicate Iberian Peninsula  
K. rupicola   4x, 6x montane meadows, limestone screes E Iberian Peninsula  
K. subcanescens K. subcanescens/persicina 2x, 4x tall herb communities, (sub) alpine meadows Western Alps  
K. subscaposa   2x grassy and rocky slopes Iberian Peninsula  
Xerophytic   2 x , 4 x , 6 x   widespread usually strongly divided leaves with one to three pairs of lobes, often densely lanuginose to tomentose
K. adriatica   4x rocky limestone slopes, calcareous hillsides, scrub margins Dalmatia (Croatia)  
K. albanica K. velutina 2x dry grasslands Central W Balkan Peninsula  
K. arvensis K. arvensis 2x, 4x grasslands and ruderal places most of Europe except for the extreme south  
K. calycina K. velutina 2x mountain grasslands Central and S Italy, Sicily  
K. clementii K. dalmatica 4x, 6x dry grasslands Dalmatia (Croatia)  
K. collina K. arvensis 2x dry grasslands and subruderal places S France and NW Italy?  
K. dalmatica K. dalmatica 4x rocky limestone slopes, calcareous hillsides, scrub margines Dalmatia (Croatia)  
K. illyrica p.p. K. arvensis 2x, 4x, 6x dry grasslands SE Alps to NW Balkan Peninsula  
K. mollis K. velutina 2x mountain grasslands SW Alps  
K. pectinata K. dalmatica 2x, 4x dry mountain grasslands NW Balkan Peninsula (Velebit)  
K. purpurea p.p. K. arvensis 2x, 4x dry grasslands and ruderal places SW and S Europe  
K. sp. 1   6x upper montane meadows NW Balkan Peninsula (S Velebit)  
K. travnicensis K. fleischmannii 2x, 4x, 6x dry mountain grasslands Central NW Balkan Peninsula  
K. velebitica K. velutina 2x dry mountain grasslands NW Balkan Peninsula (Velebit)