Distribution of branching and debranching enzymes in major groups of eukaryotes. Percentages of completely sequenced genomes with at least one branching enzyme, at least one debranching enzyme, and at least one of each (“Both”) are shown. Branching enzymes are defined by their CBM_48—Alpha-amylase domain architecture, debranching enzymes are of either CBM_48—Alpha-amylase or hGDE_N—hGDE-amylase-hGDE—hGDE-central—GDE_C architecture. Distinction between CBM_48—Alpha-amylase branchers and debranchers is based on phylogenetic analysis. A domain cutoff E-value of 10-3 was used. Groups marked with an asterisk are only represented by one fully sequenced genome (see Additional file 1).