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Figure 4 | BMC Evolutionary Biology

Figure 4

From: Genetic structure and breeding system in a social wasp and its social parasite

Figure 4

Distribution of (A) observed mate number and (B) effective mate number ( k e 3 ) for V. maculifrons and V. squamosa queens. Within each species the distribution effective mate number is reduced relative to observed mate number because of unequal sperm use by queens. The distributions of observed mate number differed significantly from a Gaussian distribution in both species due to an excess of queens mated to intermediate numbers of males.

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