Further study of Late Devonian seed plant Cosmosperma polyloba: its reconstruction and evolutionary significance
© The Author(s). 2017
Received: 25 January 2017
Accepted: 6 June 2017
Published: 26 June 2017
The earliest seed plants in the Late Devonian (Famennian) are abundant and well known. However, most of them lack information regarding the frond system and reconstruction. Cosmosperma polyloba represents the first Devonian ovule in China and East Asia, and its cupules, isolated synangiate pollen organs and pinnules have been studied in the preceding years.
New fossils of Cosmosperma were obtained from the type locality, i.e. the Leigutai Member of the Wutong Formation in Fanwan Village, Changxing County, Zhejiang Province, South China. The collection illustrates stems and fronds extensively covered in prickles, as well as fertile portions including uniovulate cupules and anisotomous branches bearing synangiate pollen organs. The stems are unbranched and bear fronds helically. Fronds are dimorphic, displaying bifurcate and trifurcate types, with the latter possibly connected to fertile rachises terminated by pollen organs. Tertiary and quaternary rachises possessing pinnules are arranged alternately (pinnately). The cupule is uniovulate and the ovule has four linear integumentary lobes fused in basal 1/3. The striations on the stems and rachises may indicate a Sparganum-type cortex.
Cosmosperma further demonstrates diversification of frond branching patterns in the earliest seed plants. The less-fused cupule and integument of this plant are considered primitive among Devonian spermatophytes with uniovulate cupules. We tentatively reconstructed Cosmosperma with an upright, semi-self-supporting habit, and the prickles along stems and frond rachises were interpreted as characteristics facilitating supporting rather than defensive structures.
Many ovules have been reported from the Upper Devonian (Famennian) of Europe, North America and China, and they indicate the first major radiation of seed plants or spermatophytes [1–4]. Pollen organs also add to our knowledge about these earliest spermatophytes, although they are usually detached from the ovules or fronds [3, 5–10]. Despite the abundance of fertile structures (>20 genera of ovules and pollen organs) in the Late Devonian, the frond morphology and overall architecture is only known for a few seed plant taxa.
South China was an isolated crustal plate with great plant diversity in the Devonian [11–13]. However, seed plant were only recently found in the Late Devonian of this plate, displaying cupulate ovules, pollen organs and stem anatomy [3, 4, 8–10, 13]. These findings suggest that China is an important area for understanding the early evolution of seed plants. Among them, Cosmosperma polyloba represents the first Devonian ovules known from China and East Asia that are associated with pollen organs and pinnules , while the details of the ovules are unclear due to poor preservation. Based on new specimens from the type locality, we now emend the diagnoses of Cosmosperma, compare its frond morphology to related taxa and provide further information regarding its overall architecture. The entire plant is reconstructed and its evolutionary significance is discussed.
Material and Methods
Over 100 new specimens of Cosmosperma polyloba were obtained from the Wutong (Wutung) Formation in a quarry near Fanwan Village, Hongqiao Town, Changxing County, Zhejiang Province, China. The information regarding the locality and stratigraphy has been provided in recent studies [3, 14, 15]. At the Fanwan section, the Wutong Formation is divided into the Guanshan Member, with quartz sandstone and conglomerate, and the overlying Leigutai Member, with interbedded quartz sandstone and mudstone. The fossil plant occurs at the 13th bed of the Wutong Formation (in the Leigutai Member), i.e. the same bed from which former specimens of Cosmosperma and strobili of lycopsid Changxingia sp. were collected [3, 15]. The LC (Knoxisporites literatus-Reticulatisporites cancellatus) spore assemblage suggests that the upper part of the Leigutai Member is of the latest Famennian age .
In siltstone with tiny crystals of quartz and white micas, the plant is preserved as dark-brown compressions and impressions, displaying great contrast to the yellowish matrix. Steel needles were applied to expose the plant morphology and a digital camera and a stereoscope were used for photographs. All the specimens are housed at the Department of Geology, Peking University, Beijing, China.
Division Spermatophyta sensu Rothwell and Serbet 1994
Class Lagenospermopsida sensu Cleal 1994
Order and Family Incertae sedis
Genus Cosmosperma Wang et al. 2014 emend.
Emended diagnosis: (emended and additional generic characters are in brackets).
[Seed plant with unbranched stems bearing dimorphic fronds, dichotomized fertile rachises terminated by synangiate pollen organs, and cupulate ovules. Fronds with a swollen pulvinus-shaped base. Majority of fronds bifurcate, with primary rachis dichotomizing into two secondary rachises. The other fronds trifurcate, with primary rachis ended by two subopposite secondary rachises and one median rachis. Tertiary rachises and ultimate pinnae (with quaternary rachis) borne alternately and pinnately.] Nonlaminate pinnules planate, highly dissected and alternately arranged on [quaternary rachis]. Pollen organs synangiate, with each terminating a stalk and consisting of [four] to eight elongate microsporangia that are basally fused and distally free. Uniovulate cupules with [up to approximately 16 tips]; cupule [tips] free for a length of half to two thirds that of cupules. [Ovule connected to cupule by a short stalk. Four linear integumentary lobes fused in the basal 1/3. Tiny conical prickles occurring on stems, four orders of frond rachises, cupules and fertile rachises.]
Type species Cosmosperma polyloba Wang et al. 2014 emend.
Repository: Department of Geology, Peking University, Beijing, China.
Locality & horizon: Fanwan Village, Hongqiao Town, Changxing County, Zhejiang Province, China; Leigutai Member of Wutong Formation, Upper Devonian (Famennian).
Emended diagnosis: (Emended and additional specific characters are in brackets).
As for generic diagnosis. [Stems up to 25.9 cm long and 2.2 cm wide, with internodes 0.6–6.2 cm long. Fronds departing at 40–70°. Primary rachises 10.3–21.2 cm long and 3.0–12 mm wide. The secondary rachises are up to 14.3 cm long and 1.8–3.6 mm wide. Median rachises of trifurcate fronds up to 10.9 cm long and ca. 4.0 mm wide. Tertiary rachises up to 10.9 cm long and 1.7–2.9 mm wide. First tertiary rachises occurring on outside of frond. Ultimate pinna] up to 54 mm long and 28 mm wide, with [quaternary rachis] about 0.7 mm wide; pinnules [6.0]–13.3 mm long and [3.0]–13.0 mm wide, borne at angles of 70–90°, and consisting of one terminal unit and four alternately arranged lateral units. Pinnule units 4.2–7.2 mm long and 2.8–8.3 mm wide, equally dichotomous for one to three times. [Fertile rachises dichotomizing 3–6 times at 50–120°, with intervals between adjacent bifurcating points 1.4–19.3 mm long and 0.3–1.2 mm wide.] Pollen organs borne in pairs, 2.2–[2.5] mm long and [2.0]–2.9 mm wide, with stalks 1.0 mm long and 0.2–0.3 mm wide; microsporangia 2.3 mm long and [0.3]–0.7 mm wide, and distally tapered. Cupules [5.3]–8.8 mm long and [3.0]–9.0 mm wide; pedicels 1.0 mm long and 0.4 mm wide; ovules 3.7–[4.7] mm long and 1.6–[2.2] mm wide; [ovule stalk ca. 0.2 mm long and ca. 0.5 mm wide; integumentary lobes ca. 3.8 mm long and ca. 0.5 mm wide. Prickles on stems and proximal parts of fronds, ca. 0.3 mm long and ca. 0.5 mm wide at the base; those on cupules and distal fertile rachises, ca. 0.2 mm long and ca. 0.3 mm wide at the base].
Stems are 0.7–2.2 cm wide (Figs. 1 and 2) and up to 25.9 cm long (Fig. 1b). No evidence indicates that the stems are branched. The large stems (Fig. 1) suggest basal or mature parts of the plant, while the slender ones (Fig. 2) may represent the upper or immature portions. The prickles are ca. 0.3 mm long and ca. 0.5 mm wide at the base (Fig. 1c, arrows, f, arrows and Fig. 2e, arrow), and they sometimes leave pit-like impressions on the stem surface (Fig. 1, g, black arrows).
Along the stem, the internodal length between the attachments of two adjacent fronds ranges from 0.6–6.2 cm (Fig. 1a, b, e, h; Fig. 2a–c). The fronds depart at 40–70° (Fig. 1a, b, d, e; Fig. 2a–d), and their bases are swollen and pulvinus shaped (Figs. 1e and 2b–d). Fronds exhibit two types of division (Fig. 3), i.e. the bifurcate type (Figs. 3a and 4) and the trifurcate type (Figs. 3b and 5), which can be distinguished by the primary rachises. Most fronds are bifurcate, showing primary rachises that extend a long distance and then dichotomize at 45–70° into two secondary rachises (Figs. 1h, 2d, 4a and 6a). The trifurcate fronds possess a primary rachis that ends in two subopposite secondary rachises departing at 60–90° and a median rachis (Fig. 1b, dashed box; Fig. 5a–d). The total length of fronds is up to 24.2 cm (Fig. 4a). Primary rachises are 10.3–21.2 cm long (Figs. 2d and 4d), and are usually 3.0–4.0 mm wide, but can be up to 12 mm wide (Fig. 1d). The secondary rachises are up to 14.3 cm long and 1.8–3.6 mm wide. The median rachises of trifurcate fronds are up to 10.9 cm long and ca. 4.0 mm wide, demonstrating parallel vertical striations and tiny conical prickles (Fig. 5d). Tertiary rachises are borne alternately (Figs. 4a, 5b and 6b, c, Additional file 1: Figure S1b–d), and up to 10.9 cm long and 1.7–2.9 mm wide. Two proximal tertiary rachises are produced toward the outside of the frond, at the same distance from the base of the secondary rachis (Figs. 4a and 5a). Ultimate pinnae are mainly alternately (i.e., pinnately) arranged (Figs. 4a, 5c and 6a–c, Additional files 1 and 2: Figures S1b–d, S2a), but occasionally folded to one side (Fig. 6a) due to preservation. The quaternary rachises (ultimate pinna rachises) are up to 4.1 cm long and 0.7 mm wide (Figs. 4c, 5e and 6b, c, Additional file 2: Figure S2b–e). The amount of quaternary rachises on a single tertiary rachis is up to 11 (Fig. 6a, Additional file 2: Figure S2a). The prickles on frond rachises are ca. 0.3 mm long and ca. 0.5 mm wide at the base (Fig. 4b, c, arrows and Fig. 5d). Highly dissected but planate pinnules are alternately arranged along the quaternary rachis, and are 6.0–13.0 mm long and 3.0–10.0 mm wide (Figs. 4c, 5e and 6b, c, Additional file 2: Figure S2, b–e). Each pinnule exhibits an “axis”, with several alternately-borne lateral units and one terminal unit. These units dichotomize into several slender segments (Figs. 4c and 6b, c, Additional file 2: Figure S2b–e). The axis and the segments are ca. 0.5 mm wide.
Cupules are isolated, 5.3–7.7 mm long and 3.0–5.1 mm at the maximum width (Fig. 6d, e). The cupules display minute conical prickles on the outer surface (Fig. 6d, arrow) that are ca. 0.2 mm long and ca. 0.3 mm wide at the base. Each cupule possesses segments with multiple tips that are about half of the total cupule length and are ca. 0.5 mm wide. One specimen illustrates that the cupule is uniovulate (Fig. 6e). The upper part of the ovule (Fig. 6g, arrow) is dégaged to expose several cupule tips (Fig. 6h, white star), which are beneath the ovule remnant (Fig. 6h, black star). Before the dégagement, this ovule was 4.7 mm long and 2.2 mm wide, and connected to the cupule by a short stalk ca. 0.2 mm long and 0.5 mm wide (Fig. 6e, lower arrow, f). Four integumentary lobes are linear and straight (Fig. 6e, black arrows), ca. 3.8 mm long and ca. 0.5 mm wide, and fused to each other in the basal 1/3 of the ovule.
Fertile rachises with terminal pollen organs
The fertile rachises are anisotomous and terminate in pollen organs (Fig. 7a, b, d–f; Additional file 3: Figure S3). These rachises dichotomize 3–6 times and at an angle of 50–120°, with the intervals between two adjacent bifurcating points being 1.4–19.3 mm long and 0.3–1.2 mm wide. Both length and width of the intervals reduce acropetally. Conical prickles are sparse on the branches and ca. 0.2 mm long and 0.3 mm wide at the base (Fig. 7a, c, Additional file 3: Figure S3a). Pollen organs, ca. 2.5 mm long and 2.0 mm wide, are born mainly in pairs, but sometimes singly or incompletely preserved (Fig. 7d–f; Additional file 3: Figure S3). Individual pollen organs are synangiate with basally fused microsporangia. Each synangium consists of 4–8 elongate microsporangia, which are ca. 2.3 mm long and 0.3–0.4 mm wide.
Reconstruction of Cosmosperma
Comparisons with other Devonian seed plants
Comparison of morphological traits among Late Devonian seed plants
Frond rachis arrangement
Length of primary rachis prior to bifurcation (cm)
Location of ultimate pinnae
Fertile rachises bearing pollen organs
Equally and repeatedly bifurcated
on secondary and higher orders of rachises
Isotomously and cruciately dichotomized
Pinnate with bifurcated primary rachis
up to 15.5
on both primary and secondary rachises
on tertiary rachises
Pinnate with bifurcated primary rachis
on tertiary rachises
Planate and highly dissected
Pinnate with bifurcated primary rachis
on secondary rachises
Planate and highly dissected
Pinnate with bifurcated/trifurcated primary rachis
on tertiary rachises
Planate and highly dissected
on stems, frond rachises and cupule surfaces
Variations in fronds among early seed plants
Early seed plants are characterized by bipartite fronds with dichotomized primary rachises [19, 20], while diversified frond structures are evidenced in the Late Devonian taxa, such as variable dimensions of fronds, different branching manners and flexible locations of ultimate pinnae (Table 1). It has been shown that great morphological disparities have occurred among the Late Devonian spermatophytes. Lyginopterid seed plants in the Early/Late Carboniferous are thought to possess fronds with dichotomized/pinnate branching patterns, respectively . Since Elkinsia is characterized by repeatedly dichotomized fronds , while Laceya , Yiduxylon , Telangiopsis  and Cosmosperma show pinnate fronds, it seems that both branching patterns have arisen in the Late Devonian spermatophytes.
The fertile fronds with terminal pollen organs often exhibit cruciate dividing patterns in the Late Devonian seed plants (e.g., Telangium schweitzeri  and Elkinsia ). Among the Early Carboniferous spermatophytes, the fertile fronds with terminal pollen organs containing trilete prepollen are divided into three types: Rhacopteris/Triphyllopteris-type, Diplopteridium-type and Rhodea-type . The Diplopteridium-type illustrates a trifurcate frond rachis producing a median fertile rachis that is short and dichotomous [21–23]. The trifurcate fronds of Cosmosperma display a unique architecture among coeval seed plants. Such fronds, if connected to the fertile rachises bearing terminal pollen organs (Fig. 8), would greatly resemble the Diplopteridium-type fertile frond. In this case, Cosmosperma exemplifies the diversification of fertile fronds among Late Devonian seed plants, and suggests that some Carboniferous fertile frond types may be traced back to an earlier time.
Different dividing patterns of the fertile and vegetative fronds were present in Carboniferous spermatophytes [22, 23], which is also supported by the anatomical evidence [24, 25]. Both Elkinsia  and Cosmosperma indicate that the dimorphic fronds have occurred in the Late Devonian.
Implications from the ovule of Cosmosperma
Comparison of Late Devonian seeds with uniovulate cupules
Number of cupule segments
Structure of cupule segments
Number of cupule tips
Number of integumentary lobes
Shape and fusion of integumentary lobes
Triangular, basally fused
flattened and broad
short, fused and collar/trumpet shaped
Flattened, 1/3 fused
broad and cuneate
Flattened, 1/2-2/3 fused
Distal 1/2-2/3 dissected
up to 16
Linear, basal 1/3 fused
One of the most obvious functions of cupules and integuments is protection for the ovule , and a more entire (large and/or widely fused) integument may provide additional protection against water loss [4, 30]. The cupules of Cosmosperma enclose the ovule, while those of Dorinnotheca, Pseudosporognites and Latisemenia are recurved or short to extensively expose the ovule. On the other hand, the integrity of the integument is the lowest in Cosmosperma, moderate in Dorinnotheca and Pseudosporognites, and the greatest in Latisemenia. Therefore, the protection is largely provided by the cupule in Cosmosperma, and by the integument in the other three plants. The evolutionarily primitive status of Cosmosperma suggests that the protective function of uniovulate cupules may be replaced by the increasingly developed integument.
Function of prickles and probable growth habit of Cosmosperma
The acute outgrowths of epidermis or both epidermis and cortex, without vascular tissues, are usually named prickles, while the sharp-pointed vascularized protuberances modified from axes and leaves are separately called thorns and spines [31, 32]. Commonly, the thorns and spines are only distributed along the axes and, owing to their internal vascular tissues, cannot be easily removed. However, in Cosmosperma, the tiny conical structures occur on stems, vegetative and fertile rachises and even cupules. They also present a highly variable density corresponding to loss in the transport and/or burial process. Therefore, we tentatively assign such structures to prickles.
The prickles are not common in the Late Devonian spermatophytes, but they have been reported in some later Paleozoic seed plants, including the Early Carboniferous Medullosa steinii and Late Permian gigantopterid Aculeovinea yunguiensis [33, 34]. It has been suggested that prickles on the cupule surface of Cosmosperma may serve as protection . On the other hand, arthropod herbivory was recorded in some Late Devonian myriapods and apterygote hexapods , while the major plant defensive adaptations to such herbivory are considered chemical . However, the terrestrial vertebrate herbivory did not occur until the Permian . Since prickles are considered to provide mechanical attachments in other younger Paleozoic seed plants [33, 34], it is plausible that the prickles on the axes and leaves of the Late Devonian seed plants may largely function as supporting structures rather than defense structures against the herbivores.
Previous studies have suggested that the seed plants assigned to the Lyginopteridales are vines/lianas possessing stems generally less than 20 mm wide, and those to the Calamopityales are upright with stems usually over 20 mm wide [13, 25]. Other evidence that supports lyginopterids as vines/lianas includes stems bearing long internodes, the presence of adventitious roots, large fronds with swollen frond bases, wide angle of frond attachment and Dictyoxylon-type outer cortex [13, 37, 38]. Cosmosperma possesses relatively large fronds with pulvinus-shaped bases, which resemble those of lyginopterids. The extensively born prickles of Cosmosperma also remind us of the glands on Lagenostoma and Lyginodendron . However, in Cosmosperma, the width of the stems reaches 22 mm, the internodes are relatively short, the adventitious root is absent, the fronds depart at 40–70° and the cortex is most likely Sparganum-type. These traits enable Cosmosperma to be tentatively reconstructed as an upright, probably semi-self-supporting plant (Fig. 8), which may support each other by entangled bushy fronds rather than scrambling or climbing. The hypothesis is supported by the preservation that many slabs exhibit pure and dense communities of Cosmosperma, without any other arborescent plants. The prickles may help anchor fronds of adjacent individuals. However, the anatomical information is needed to test the suggested growth habits of this plant.
We further studied the seed plant Cosmosperma polyloba from the Upper Devonian of South China, and its stems, fronds, cupulate ovules and fertile rachises bearing pollen organs are now known in detail. Based on the morphological evidence mentioned above, we tentatively reconstructed the whole plant with an upright, semi-self-supporting habit. The prickles on stems and rachises may facilitate supporting. The fronds of Cosmosperma show bifurcated or trifurcated primary rachises, which further add to the diversity and demonstrate dimorphism of the early spermatophyte fronds. The less-fused cupules and integuments suggest that Cosmosperma is primitive among Late Devonian seed plants with uniovulate cupules.
We thank D. L. Qi (Anhui Geological Survey, Hefei) and T. Liu (Peking University, Beijing) for assistance in the fieldwork, C. C. Labandeira (Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C.) and H. Fang (Capital Normal University, Beijing) for suggestions. This study is supported by China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2016 M600146) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41672007).
Availability of data and materials
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this published article and its supplementary information files.
LL and DMW collected the fossils. LL conducted the experiments, prepared the Figures, and wrote the manuscript. All authors discussed the results, read and approved the final manuscript.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
The authors declare that the study makes no uses of human, clinical tools and procedures, vertebrate and regulated invertebrate animal subjects and/or tissue, and plants.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
- Taylor TN, Taylor EL, Krings M. Paleobotany: the biology and evolution of fossil plants. Burlington: Academic Press; 2009.Google Scholar
- Prestianni C, Hilton J, Cressler W. Were all Devonian seeds Cupulate? A reinvestigation of Pseudosporogonites hallei, Xenotheca bertrandii, and Aglosperma spp. Int J Plant Sci. 2013;174(5):832–51.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang D-M, Liu L, Meng M-C, Xue J-Z, Liu T, Guo Y. Cosmosperma polyloba gen. Et sp. nov., a seed plant from the upper Devonian of South China. Naturwissenschaften. 2014;101(8):615–22.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wang D-M, Basinger JF, Huang P, Liu L, Xue J-Z, Meng M-C, Zhang Y-Y, Deng Z-Z. Latisemenia longshania, gen. et sp. nov., a new Late Devonian seed plant from China. Proc R Soc B. 2015;282(1817):20151613.Google Scholar
- Serbet R, Rothwell GW. Characterizing the most primitive seed ferns. I. A reconstruction of Elkinsia polymorpha. Int J Plant Sci. 1992;153:602–21.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Matten LC, Fine T. Telangium schweitzeri sp. nov.: a gymnosperm pollen organ from the upper Devonian of Ireland. Palaeontogr Abt B. 1994;232:15–33.Google Scholar
- Hilton J. A Late Devonian plant assemblage from the Avon gorge, west England: taxonomic, phylogenetic and stratigraphic implications. Bot J Linn Soc. 1999;129(1):1–54.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang Y. Kongshania gen. Nov. a new plant from the Wutung formation (upper Devonian) of Jiangning County, Jiangsu, China. Acta Palaeontol Sin. 2000;39(SUPP):42–56.Google Scholar
- Wang D-M, Liu L, Guo Y, Xue J-Z, Meng M-C. A Late Devonian fertile organ with seed plant affinities from China. Sci Rep. 2015;5:10736.Google Scholar
- Wang D-M, Meng M-C, Guo Y. Pollen organ Telangiopsis sp. of Late Devonian seed plant and associated vegetative frond. PLoS One. 2016;11(1):e0147984.Google Scholar
- Hao S-G, Xue J-Z. The early Devonian Posongchong flora of Yunnan: a contribution to an understanding of the evolution and early diversification of vascular plants. Beijing: Science Press; 2013.Google Scholar
- Hao S-G, Xue J-Z. Earliest record of megaphylls and leafy structures, and their initial diversification. Chin Sci Bull. 2013;58(23):2784–93.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang D-M, Liu L. A new Late Devonian genus with seed plant affinities. BMC Evol Biol. 2015;15(1):28.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Wang D-M, Meng M-C, Xue J-Z, Basinger JF, Guo Y, Liu L. Changxingia longifolia gen. Et sp. nov., a new lycopsid from the Late Devonian of Zhejiang Province, South China. Rev Palaeobot Palynol. 2014;203:35–47.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang D-M, Qin M, Meng M-C, Liu L, Ferguson DK. New insights into the heterosporous lycopsid Changxingia from the upper Devonian Wutong formation of Zhejiang Province, China. Plant Syst Evol. 2017;303:11–21.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ouyang S. Succession of Late Palaeozoic Palynological assemblages in Jiangsu. J Stratigr. 2000;3:230–5.Google Scholar
- Klavins SD, Matten LC. Reconstruction of the frond of Laceya hibernica, a Lyginopterid pteridosperm from the uppermost Devonian of Ireland. Rev Palaeobot Palynol. 1996;93(1):253–68.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- May BI, Matten LC. A probable pteridosperm from the uppermost Devonian near Ballyheigue, co. Kerry, Ireland. Bot J Linn Soc. 1983;86(1–2):103–23.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Taylor TN, Millay MA. Morphologic variability of Pennsylvanian lyginopterid seed ferns. Rev Palaeobot Palynol. 1981;32(1):27–62.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Galtier J. The origins and early evolution of the Megaphyllous leaf. Int J Plant Sci. 2010;171(6):641–61.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Meyer-Berthaud B. First gymnosperm fructifications with trilete prepollen. Palaeontogr Abt B. 1989;211:87–112.Google Scholar
- Long AG. The resemblance between the lower Carboniferous cupules of Hydrasperma Cf. tenuis long and Sphenopteris bifida Lindley and Hutton. Trans R Soc Edin. 1979;70:129–37.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rowe N. New observations on the lower Carboniferous pteridosperm Diplopteridium Walton and an associated synangiate organ. Bot J Linn Soc. 1988;97(2):125–58.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Long AG. —Calathopteris heterophylla gen. Et sp. nov., a lower Carboniferous pteridosperm bearing two kinds of petioles. Trans R Soc Edin. 1976;69:327–36.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Galtier J. Morphology and phylogenetic relationships of early pteridosperms. In: Beck CB, editor. Origin and evolution of gymnosperms. New York: Columbia Univ. Press; 1988. p. 135–76.Google Scholar
- Rothwell GW, Scott AC. Stamnostoma oliveri, a gymnosperm with systems of ovulate cupules from the lower Carboniferous (Dinantian) floras at Oxroad Bay, East Lothian, Scotland. Rev Palaeobot Palynol. 1992;72(3):273–84.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fairon-Demaret M. Dorinnotheca streelii Fairon-Demaret, gen. Et sp. nov., a new early seed plant from the upper Famennian of Belgium. Rev Palaeobot Palynol. 1996;93(1):217–33.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Prestianni C, Gerrienne P. Lectotypification of the Famennian pre-ovule Condrusia rumex Stockmans, 1948. Rev Palaeobot Palynol. 2006;142:161–4.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Andrews HN. Early seed plants. Science. 1963;142:925–31.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rothwell GW, Scheckler SE. Biology of ancestral Gymnospems. In: Beck CB, editor. Origin and evolution of gymnosperms. New York: Columbia Univ. Press; 1988. p. 85–134.Google Scholar
- Stern KR, Jansky S, Bidlack JE. Introductory plant biology. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2003.Google Scholar
- Payne WW. A glossary of plant hair terminology. Brittonia. 1978;30(2):239–55.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li H-Q, Taylor DW. Aculeovinea yunguiensis gen. Et sp. nov.(Gigantopteridales), a new taxon of gigantopterid stem from the upper Permian of Guizhou Province, China. Int J Plant Sci. 1998;159(6):1023–33.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dunn MT, Krings M, Mapes G, Rothwell GW, Mapes RH, Keqin S. Medullosa steinii sp. nov., a seed fern vine from the upper Mississippian. Rev Palaeobot Palynol. 2003;124(3):307–24.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Labandeira CC. The four phases of plant-arthropod associations in deep time. Geol Acta. 2006;4:409–38.Google Scholar
- Shear WA, Kukalová-Peck J. The ecology of Paleozoic terrestrial arthropods: the fossil evidence. Can J Zool. 1990;68:1807–34.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tomescu AMF, Rothwell GW, Mapes G. Lyginopteris royalii sp. nov. from the upper Mississippian of North America. Rev Palaeobot Palynol. 2001;116(3):159–73.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dunn MT, Rothwell GW, Mapes G. On Paleozoic plants from marine strata: Trivena arkansana (Lyginopteridaceae) gen. Et sp. nov., a lyginopterid from the Fayetteville formation (middle Chesterian/upper Mississippian) of Arkansas, USA. Amer J Bot. 2003;90(8):1239–52.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Oliver FW, Scott DH. On the structure of the palaeozoic seed Lagenostoma lomaxi, with a statement of the evidence upon which it is referred to Lyginodendron. Phil Trans R Soc Lond B. 1905;197:193–247.View ArticleGoogle Scholar