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Fig. 9 | BMC Evolutionary Biology

Fig. 9

From: Molecular phylogeny of the subfamily Stevardiinae Gill, 1858 (Characiformes: Characidae): classification and the evolution of reproductive traits

Fig. 9

Section of the Stevardiinae phylogeny showing the relationships in Diapomini (in part, continues in Figs. 8 and 10). ML tree obtained with RAxML. Single name labels several terminals when they lead to same nominal species. Type species of each genus are highlighted in green when sampled in this study. Red sperm symbols highlight taxa with insemination strategy, while blue sperm symbols highlight taxa known to have external fertilization. Sperm types are indicated by M1 – M3. Absence of any symbols next to taxon names indicates lack of knowledge about reproductive characters. Bootstrap values indicated with dots placed on internal branches according to inset caption. Section of the full topology shown on the left (shaded) is expanded on the right. Node 6 subtends Bryconacidnus from western Amazon (type species B. ellisi non available for this study). Node 7 (continues in Fig. 10) subtends a clade from the southern range of the geographic distribution (Paraná, Paraguay, Uruguay, São Francisco and coastal basins in SE Brazil) that contains Bryconamericus sensu stricto, Piabarchus, Piabina and Diapoma. Node 8 subtends Bryconamericus sensu stricto restricted to Rio Paraná and Uruguay basins and coastal rivers in southeastern Brazil (B. exodon is type species)

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