Ultrametric tree based on Cytb topology using semi-parametric penalized likelihood. Ultrametric tree based on the topology obtained with the mitochondrial Cytb gene using semi-parametric penalized likelihood. The calibration points are indicated by arrows, the first, node 1, corresponds with the rising of the Sierra of Perija and Merida Mountains Díaz de Gamero , and the second, node 6, corresponds to the final closure of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt Ferrari et al. . The main vicariant events are shown in the diagram as are the dispersal events.