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Table 1 Parameters and variables used in this study.

From: The coevolution of cooperation and dispersal in social groups and its implications for the emergence of multicellularity

w Individual fitness
r Relatedness between any two randomly selected individuals in the group
s Individual cost to cooperator growth in the group
k Number of individuals in a group (an inverse measure of kin selection)
c Individual cost to cooperator dispersal
e Individual cost to cheater dispersal
Q Impact of sedentary cheaters on the individual fitness of group members (via consumption of the public good)
P Impact of sedentary cooperators on the individual fitness of group members (via production of the public good)
n Relative frequency of cooperators in the group (1-n is the proportion of cheaters)
z Relative frequency of cheaters dispersing
y Relative frequency of cooperators dispersing
d Overall investment in dispersal. d = yn + z(1-n)
Φ Overall cooperation with respect to the public good. Φ = n*(1-y*)+(1-n*)z*
σ Association between dispersal and cooperation. σ = y/(y+z)