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Table 1 Functional feeding systems and component traits of limnetic and benthic stickleback

From: Functional basis of ecological divergence in sympatric stickleback

Functional system Landmarks (Figure 2) W (rank-sum test) Mean ± SE, Limnetic 1 Mean ± SE, Benthic 1
  Suction Index 1,2,3,4,5,6 523*** 0.010 ± 0.001 0.017 ± 0.001
  Disp. adv., jaw opening 2,8,9 13*** 5.96 ± 0.01 4.82 ± 0.01
  Opercular four-bar KT 8,9,10,11 98*** 5.75 ± 0.13 5.15 ± 0.13
  Jaw protrusion 1,7 99*** 1.76 ± 0.07 mm 1.48 ± 0.07 mm
Morphological component traits Landmarks (Figure 2 ) W (rank-sum test) Mean ± SE, Limnetic 1 Mean ± SE, Benthic 1
Suction Index:
  Gape 1,2 343 5.15 ± 0.13 mm 5.33 ± 0.13 mm
  Buccal length 1,6 204 15.05 ± 0.21 mm 14.66 ± 0.21 mm
  Neurocranium outlever 1,3 292 16.55 ± 0.20 mm 16.47 ± 0.20 mm
  Epaxial height 3,4 493*** 1.95 ± 0.08 mm 2.35 ± 0.08 mm
  Epaxial width 3, 5 572*** 5.46 ± 0.09 mm 6.38 ± 0.09 mm
Disp. adv., jaw opening:     
  Jaw opening outlever 2,8 248 5.60 ± 0.11 mm 5.54 ± 0.11 mm
  Jaw opening inlever2 8,9 568*** 0.94 ± 0.02 mm 1.15 ± 0.02 mm
Opercular four-bar:
  Coupler link 9,11 262 6.83 ± 0.10 mm 6.86 ± 0.10 mm
  Fixed link 8,10 231 9.56 ± 0.12 mm 9.44 ± 0.12 mm
  Input link 10,11 512 *** 5.27 ± 0.08 mm 5.71 ± 0.08 mm
  Output link2 8,9 568 *** 0.94 ± 0.02 mm 1.15 ± 0.02 mm
  1. 1Trait values calculated using linear regression of SL (set to 50 mm) and ecomorph.
  2. 2Jaw opening inlever = output link of the opercular four-bar.
  3. ***p < 0.001.