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Table 2 Estimates of branch length for sister clades of parasitic (P) and autotrophic (non-parasitic, NP) plants for chloroplast sequences

From: Parasitic plants have increased rates of molecular evolution across all three genomes

Comparison Parasitic clade Non-parasite 16S rRNA ( rrn16) Protein-coding (all) Comb. dN dS dN/dS
P NP Sign P NP Sign Sign P NP Sign P NP Sign P NP Sign
1 Apodanthaceae Malvaceae 1.637 0.013 +     +          
2 Cytinaceae Thymelaeaceae 0.091 0.008 +     +          
3 Rafflesiaceae Passifloraceae/ Euphorbiaceae 0.150 0.091 +     +          
4 Cynomoriaceae Hamamelidacea/ Peridiscaceae 0.083 0.002 +     +          
5 Krameriaceae Zygophyllaceae     0.098 0.164 0.032 0.070 0.296 0.360 0.112 0.220
6 Mitrastemonaceae Vaccinieae 0.196 0.940             
7 Boraginaceae Boraginaceae     0.076 0.019 + + 0.040 0.017 + 0.133 0.040 + 0.297 0.423
8 Orobanchaceae Plantaginaceae 0.027 0.001 + 0.561 0.366 + + 0.413 0.206 + 0.960 0.743 + 0.409 0.268 +
9 Convolvulaceae Convolvulaceae/ Ipomoeeae 0.014 0.001 + 0.724 0.052 + + 0.115 0.027 + 1.938 0.151 + 0.047 0.102
10 Lauraceae Lauraceae     0.344 0.122 + + 0.235 0.116 + 0.526 0.137 + 0.320 0.721
11 Hydnoraceae Aristolochiaceae 0.336 0.000 +     +          
12 Santalaceae/ Olacaceae Strombosiaceae     0.125 0.049 + + 0.068 0.039 + 0.241 0.069 + 0.239 0.585
Wilcoxon rank sign test Z = 1.47, p = 0.14 Z = 1.68, p = 0.09   Z = 1.47, p = 0.14 Z = 1.89, p = 0.06 Z = −1.26, p = 0.21
Signs test    p = 0.039    
  1. For details of the species and sequences included in each comparisons see Additional file 3: Table S3. Protein-coding branch lengths were estimated for all substitutions (all), nonsynonymous (dN) and synonymous substitutions (dS): see methods for details. Sign indicates whether the parasite has the longer branch length (+) or not (−). The Wilcoxon ranked signs test takes into account the magnitude of differences in branch length as well as the sign. Because most comparisons had only 16S or the protein-coding genes, we combined the two (Comb.) to assess the pattern over all comparisons using a signs test: for this test we considered only the direction of the rate difference for each comparison, whether calculated from 16S or protein coding genes or both.