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Table 1 Empirical evidence of plastic dispersal

From: Dispersing away from bad genotypes: the evolution of Fitness-Associated Dispersal (FAD) in homogeneous environments

Citation Species Data Dispersal driver supported
Baguette et al., 2011 [21] Bog fritillary butterfly (Boloria eunomia) Lower habitat quality raises the emigration rates and higher habitat quality raises the residence probability Negative density-dependence as a cue; lower habitat quality (limited resources)
Vercken et al., 2012 [22] Juvenile common lizard (Lacerta vivipara) Frequencies of female classes affect dispersal decisions differentially among classes Competition with superior conspecifics; conspecifics as environmental condition cue
Donohue, 2003[23], Imbert & Ronce, 2001 [24] Holy’s Hawk’s-beard (Crepis sancta) Environmental stress results in a higher proportion of wind-dispersal structures Lower habitat quality (limited resources)
Wender et al., 2005 [25] Arabidopsis thaliana Density effects on maternal traits, such as plant height and fruits, have diverse effects on seed dispersal patterns Density-dependence (with various effects)
Hanski et al., 1991 [26] Siberian flying squirrels (Sorex araneus) Juvenile dispersal strategy changes with density from conditional to effectively non-conditional Competition with superior individuals; density-dependence
Chaput-Bardy et al., 2010 [27] Damselfly (Calopteryx splendens) Females tend to disperse more often than males; emigration probability decreases with density; probability to move decreases when sex-ratio is male biased Conspecific negative density-dependence (sex-ratio dependence); sex-dependence;
Clarke et al., 2008 [28] Chacma baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus) Males disperse; individual well-being combined with numbers of males and females is associated with differential and plastic dispersal strategies Competition with conspecifics
Solmsen et al., 2011 [29] African striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio) Locally inferior males disperse with a higher tendency Competition with conspecifics; sex-dependence(?)
Shafer et al., 2011 [30] The mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) Dispersers have lower observed heterozygosity compared to their population of origin Inbreeding avoidance; heterosis; competition with conspecifics