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Table 7 Plasticity slows down the frequency increase of circuits in a new optimal genotype network.

From: Phenotypic plasticity can facilitate adaptive evolution in gene regulatory circuits

N c d Sample size Mean t0.25,control Mean t0.25,plast p-value
8 0.4 0.125 498 27.55 46.72 < 2.2 × 10-16
   0.25 498 30.69 45.91 < 2.2 × 10-16
   0.5 497 28.01 45.63 < 2.2 × 10-16
  0.3 0.125 495 18.8 26.49 < 2.2 × 10-16
   0.25 498 19.25 25.86 < 2.2 × 10-16
   0.5 498 26.44 25.99 < 2.2 × 10-16
16 0.25 0.125 413 41.61 106.96 6.9 × 10-14
   0.25 431 35.66 138.98 < 2.2 × 10-16
   0.5 418 49.76 162.98 < 2.2 × 10-16
  0.2 0.125 462 43.4 143.45 < 2.2 × 10-16
   0.25 466 36.48 133.72 < 2.2 × 10-16
   0.5 471 42.01 120.97 < 2.2 × 10-16
20 0.2 0.25 152 35.45 103.8 4.4 × 10-10
  1. The number of generations that a population needs to increase the fraction of its circuits in the new genotype network to 25 percent is significantly higher with plasticity, i.e., t0.25,plast>t0.25,controlaccording to a Wilcoxon signed-rank test.
  2. The value of d is that of the old genotype network. We analyzed 500 pairs of evolving populations for each combination of N, c and d. We discarded population pairs in which any of the populations never had 25% of its circuits in the new genotype network by the end of the simulation (t = 104). Thus, our actual sample size was lower than 500 populations. The probability α of gene-activity perturbation in s0 equaled 0.05 per gene when N = 8, 0.025 when N = 16, and 0.02 when N = 20. Population size M = 1000; μ = 0.5; ωnative = 0.5.