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Table 5 Plasticity accelerates the discovery of a new optimal genotype network

From: Phenotypic plasticity can facilitate adaptive evolution in gene regulatory circuits

N c d Sample size Mean t*, control Mean t*, plast p-value
8 0.4 0.125 498 164.93 54.45 < 2.2 × 10-16
   0.25 498 160.3 52.86 < 2.2 × 10-16
   0.5 497 167.58 46.95 < 2.2 × 10-16
  0.3 0.125 495 104.92 42.82 < 2.2 × 10-16
   0.25 498 103.84 38.03 < 2.2 × 10-16
   0.5 498 136.33 40.53 < 2.2 × 10-16
16 0.25 0.125 420 2744.8 2319.81 0.00059
   0.25 435 2792.44 2299.51 3.9 × 10-5
   0.5 421 2832.02 2173.54 2.2 × 10-7
  0.2 0.125 464 2510.68 1700.95 1.4 × 10-11
   0.25 468 2483.48 1867.23 1.2 × 10-6
   0.5 473 2400.1 1758.22 1.4 × 10-7
20 0.2 0.25 154 3961.17 3303.32 0.006869
  1. The number of generations that a population takes to 'discover' a circuit in a new genotype network is significantly lower when we allow plasticity (t*, plast<t*, control), according to a Wilcoxon signed-rank test.
  2. The value of d is that of the old genotype network. We analyzed 500 pairs of evolving populations for each combination of N, c and d. We discarded population pairs in which any of the populations had not reached the new genotype network by the end of the simulation (t = 104). Thus, our actual sample size was lower than 500 populations. The probability α ofgene-activity perturbation in s0 equaled 0.05 per gene when N = 8, 0.025 when N = 16, and 0.02 when N = 20. Population size M = 1000; μ = 0.5; ωnative = 0.5.