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Table 1 Mutations and perturbations in the initial condition s0 produce the same phenotypes more often than expected by chance

From: Phenotypic plasticity can facilitate adaptive evolution in gene regulatory circuits

N c d Mean C± S.E. p-value Sample sizea
8 0.4 0.125 0.528 ± 0.006 < 2.2 × 10-16 5485
   0.25 0.496 ± 0.006 < 2.2 × 10-16 5905
   0.5 0.557 ± 0.005 < 2.2 × 10-16 7269
  0.3 0.125 0.442 ± 0.006 < 2.2 × 10-16 5885
   0.25 0.398 ± 0.006 < 2.2 × 10-16 6050
   0.5 0.349 ± 0.005 < 2.2 × 10-16 7144
20 0.3 0.1 0.712 ± 0.006 < 2.2 × 10-16 5247
   0.25 0.8 ± 0.005 < 2.2 × 10-16 6432
   0.5 0.885 ± 0.003 < 2.2 × 10-16 8055
  0.2 0.1 0.63 ± 0.006 < 2.2 × 10-16 5318
   0.25 0.645 ± 0.006 < 2.2 × 10-16 5699
   0.5 0.711 ± 0.005 < 2.2 × 10-16 7102
  0.1 0.1 0.47 ± 0.006 < 2.2 × 10-16 6036
   0.25 0.408 ± 0.006 < 2.2 × 10-16 6058
   0.5 0.364 ± 0.005 < 2.2 × 10-16 6776
  1. C >Crand, according to a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. In this and all other tables, N refers to the number of genes in a circuit, c refers to the circuit's interaction density, and d refers to the fraction of gene activity differences between the unperturbed initial condition s0 and the native phenotype s n a t i v e .
  2. aEven though we sampled 104 genotypes for each genotype network, we discarded genotypes in which either P μ or P s 0 was empty.